Love scam or espionage? Clear Tribe lures Indian and Pakistani officials

ESET researchers analyze a cyberespionage campaign that distributes CapraRAT backdoors by way of trojanized and supposedly safe Android messaging apps – but in addition exfiltrates sensitive info

ESET researchers have identified an lively Transparent Tribe marketing campaign, concentrating on principally Indian and Pakistani Android users – presumably with a army or political orientation. Victims have been in all probability targeted via a honey-lure romance scam, where they have been initially contacted on another platform and then satisfied to make use of supposedly “safer” apps, which they have been then lured into putting in. More than likely lively since July 2022, the marketing campaign has distributed CapraRAT backdoors by means of no less than two comparable web sites, while representing them as untainted variations of those safe messaging apps.

Key factors of the blogpost:

  • This Transparent Tribe campaign mainly targets Indian and Pakistani citizens, probably those with a army or political background.
  • It distributed the Android CapraRAT backdoor by way of trojanized safe messaging and calling apps branded as MeetsApp and MeetUp; the backdoor can exfiltrate any sensitive info from its victims’ units.
  • These trojanized apps have been obtainable to obtain from web sites posing as official distribution centers. We consider a romance rip-off was used to lure targets to those web sites.
  • Poor operational safety round these apps exposed consumer PII, allowing us to geolocate one hundred fifty victims.
  • CapraRAT was hosted on a website that resolved to an IP tackle beforehand utilized by Clear Tribe.

Marketing campaign overview

In addition to the inherent working chat performance of the unique respectable app, the trojanized variations embrace malicious code that we’ve identified as that of the CapraRAT backdoor. Transparent Tribe, also called APT36, is a cyberespionage group recognized to use CapraRAT; we have now also seen comparable baits deployed towards its targets up to now. The backdoor is capable of taking screenshots and pictures, recording telephone calls and surrounding audio, and exfiltrating some other delicate info. The backdoor may also receive commands to download information, make calls, and ship SMS messages. The marketing campaign is narrowly focused, and nothing suggests these apps have been ever obtainable on Google Play.

We recognized this campaign when analyzing a sample posted on Twitter that was of interest resulting from matching Snort rules for both CrimsonRAT and AndroRAT. Snort rules determine and alert on malicious network visitors and may be written to detect a selected sort of assault or malware.

CrimsonRAT is Windows malware, recognized to be used solely by Clear Tribe. In 2021, the group began to target the Android platform, utilizing a modified version of an open-source RAT named AndroRAT. It bears similarities to CrimsonRAT, and has been named CapraRAT by Development Micro in its analysis.


Based mostly on the Android Package deal Package (APK) identify, the primary malicious software is branded MeetsApp and claims to offer safe chat communications. We have been capable of finding an internet site from which this pattern might have been downloaded (meetsapp[.]org); see Figure 1.

Figure 1. Distribution web site of CapraRAT posing as MeetsApp

That page’s download button results in an Android app with the identical identify; unfortunately, the obtain link isn’t alive anymore (https://telephone-drive[.]on-line/obtain.php?file=MeetsApp.apk). At the time of this research, telephone-drive[.]on-line resolved to 198.37.123[.]126, which is identical IP tackle as telephone-drive.on-line.geo-news[.]television, which was used prior to now by Transparent Tribe to host its spy ware.


Evaluation of the MeetsApp distribution web site confirmed that a few of its assets have been hosted on one other server with an identical area identify – meetup-chat[.]com – using an analogous service identify. That website also offered an Android messaging app, MeetUp, to obtain with the same package deal identify ( as for MeetsApp, and having the same web site emblem, as could be seen in Determine 2.

Determine 2. Distribution website of CapraRAT posing as MeetUp

Attribution to Transparent Tribe

Each apps – from the tweet and from the sample downloaded from meetup-chat[.]com – embrace the same CapraRAT code, communicate with the same C&C server (sixty hundred seventy five[.]91:4098), and their APK information are signed utilizing the same developer certificate.

Therefore, we strongly consider that both web sites have been created by the identical menace actor; both domains have been registered across the similar time – July 9th and July 25th, 2022.

Each apps are based mostly on the same professional code trojanized with CapraRAT backdoor code. Messaging functionality appears either to be developed by the menace actor or discovered (perhaps bought) online, since we couldn’t determine its origin. Earlier than utilizing the app, victims have to create accounts which are linked to their telephone numbers and require SMS verification. As soon as this account is created, the app requests additional permissions that permit the backdoor’s full performance to work, comparable to accessing contacts, name logs, SMS messages, external storage, and recording audio.

The domain telephone-drive[.]online on which the malicious MeetsApp APK was placed began to resolve to the same IP tackle around the similar time as the domain telephone-drive.on-line.geo-news[.]television that was used up to now marketing campaign managed by Clear Tribe, as reported by Cisco. In addition to that, the malicious code of the analyzed samples was seen within the earlier marketing campaign reported by Development Micro where CapraRAT was used. In Figure three you possibly can see a comparability of malicious class names from CapraRAT obtainable from 2022-01 on left aspect, and its newer variant having the same class names and performance.

Figure 3. Malicious class identify comparability of older CapraRAT (left) and newer model (right)


Throughout our investigation, weak operational security resulted in the exposure of some victim knowledge. This info allowed us to geolocate over one hundred fifty victims in India, Pakistan, Russia, Oman, and Egypt, as seen in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Sufferer distribution

Based mostly on our analysis, potential victims have been lured to put in the app by a honey-lure romance scam operation, the place most probably they have been first contacted on a special platform and then persuaded to use the “more secure” MeetsApp or MeetUp app. We’ve got beforehand seen such baits being used by Clear Tribe operators towards their targets. Discovering a cellular number or an e-mail handle they will use to make first contact is often not troublesome.

Technical analysis

Initial entry

As described above, the malicious MeetUp app has been out there at meetup-chat[.]com, and we consider with excessive confidence that the malicious MeetsApp was obtainable at meetsapp[.]org. Neither app can be mechanically put in from these places; the victims had to decide on to download and set up the apps manually. Considering that solely a handful people have been compromised, we consider that potential victims have been extremely focused and lured using romance schemes, with Transparent Tribe operators almost definitely establishing first contact by way of one other messaging platform. After gaining the victims’ trust, they advised shifting to a different – allegedly more secure – chat app that was out there on one of the malicious distribution websites.

There was no subterfuge suggesting the app was out there in Google Play.


After the victim indicators into the app, CapraRAT then starts to interact with its C&C server by sending primary system information and waits to obtain commands to execute. Based mostly on these instructions, CapraRAT is able to exfiltrating:

  • name logs,
  • the contacts listing,
  • SMS messages,
  • recorded telephone calls,
  • recorded surrounding audio,
  • CapraRAT-taken screenshots,
  • CapraRAT-taken pictures,
  • an inventory of information on the gadget,
  • any specific file from the gadget,
  • gadget location,
  • an inventory of operating apps, and
  • text of all notifications from other apps.

It could possibly also receive instructions to download a file, launch any installed app, kill any operating app, make a name, send SMS messages, intercept acquired SMS messages, and obtain an update and request the sufferer to put in it.


The cellular marketing campaign operated by Clear Tribe continues to be lively, representing itself as two messaging purposes, used as a canopy to distribute its Android CapraRAT backdoor. Both apps are distributed by means of two comparable web sites that, based mostly on their descriptions, present secure messaging and calling providers.

Clear Tribe in all probability uses romance scam baits to lure victims into installing the app and continues to speak with them utilizing the malicious app to maintain them on the platform and make their units accessible to the attacker. CapraRAT is remotely managed and based mostly on the instructions from the C&C server, it could possibly exfiltrate any delicate info from its victims’ units.

Operators of these apps had poor operational safety, resulting in sufferer PII being exposed to our researchers, across the open internet. Due to that, it was potential to obtain some details about the victims.

ESET Analysis provides personal APT intelligence reviews and knowledge feeds. For any inquiries about this service, go to the ESET Menace Intelligence web page.



SHA-1 Package deal identify ESET detection identify Description
4C6741660AFED4A0E68EF622AA1598D903C10A01 Android/Spy.CapraRAT.A CapraRAT backdoor.
542A2BC469E617252F60925AE1F3D3AB0C1F53B6 Android/Spy.CapraRAT.A CapraRAT backdoor.


IP Provider First seen Details
sixty hundred seventy five[.]ninety one N/A 2022-09-23 C&C.
34.102.136[.]one hundred eighty GoDaddy 2022-07-27 meetsapp[.]org – distribution web site.
194.233.70[.]54 123-Reg Restricted 2022-07-19 meetup-chat[.]com – distribution web site.
198.37.123[.]126 Go Daddy 2022-01-20 telephone-drive[.]on-line – APK file hosted website.
194.233.70[.]fifty four Mesh Digital Restricted 2022-09-23 share-lienk[.]information – APK file hosting website.

MITRE ATT&CK methods

This desk was constructed utilizing version 12 of the MITRE ATT&CK framework.

Tactic ID Identify Description
Persistence T1398 Boot or Logon Initialization Scripts CapraRAT receives the BOOT_COMPLETED broadcast intent to activate at gadget startup.
T1624.001 Event Triggered Execution: Broadcast Receivers CapraRAT functionality is triggered if one in every of these events occurs: PHONE_STATE, NEW_OUTGOING_CALL, BATTERY_CHANGED, or CONNECTIVITY_CHANGE.
Discovery T1420 File and Listing Discovery CapraRAT can listing obtainable information on external storage.
T1424 Process Discovery CapraRAT can get hold of an inventory of operating purposes.
T1422 System Community Configuration Discovery CapraRAT can extract IMEI, IMSI, IP handle, telephone quantity, and nation.
T1426 System Info Discovery CapraRAT can extract information about the gadget including SIM serial number, gadget ID, and common system info.
Collection T1533 Knowledge from Native System CapraRAT can exfiltrate information from a device.
T1517 Entry Notifications CapraRAT can acquire notification messages from different apps.
T1512 Video Seize CapraRAT can take pictures and exfiltrate them.
T1430 Location Monitoring CapraRAT tracks system location.
T1429 Audio Seize CapraRAT can report telephone calls and surrounding audio.
T1513 Display Seize CapraRAT can document the system’s display using the MediaProjectionManager API.
T1636.002 Protected Consumer Knowledge: Name Logs CapraRAT can extract name logs.
T1636.003 Protected Consumer Knowledge: Contact Listing CapraRAT can extract the gadget’s contact listing.
T1636.004 Protected Consumer Knowledge: SMS Messages CapraRAT can extract SMS messages.
Command and Control T1616 Name Management CapraRAT could make telephone calls.
T1509 Non-Commonplace Port CapraRAT communicates with its C&C over TCP port 4098.
Impression T1582 SMS Control CapraRAT can send SMS messages.

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